学术研究

古代岭南少数民族的乐舞图像及其文化阐释

别志安、李莉

别志安、李莉 古代岭南;乐舞图像;考古 2018年09月14日 137 评论 1667 阅读

  :古代岭南少数民族乐舞图像,通过考古证明,这些少数民族地区音乐的萌生符号再次证明,音乐是文明起源不可或缺的内容。

 关键词:古代岭南;乐舞图像;考古


  今之居住于岭南的少数民族我们很难完全追溯其族属的根源,但是古代岭南地区越族先民显然是他们共同的祖先的主体,透过考古的文化遗迹、图像,岭南少数民族音乐的萌生的符号伴随着先民们文明的早期起源的印迹中,再次印证——音乐是文明起源不可或缺的内容。

岭南地区,即古越族之“骆越”、“西瓯”、“苍梧”地区,夏商时文化遗迹中几乎没有乐器的存在的痕迹[1]。没有乐器的物质遗存,并不等同于这个民族在拥有了文明火种的时代缺失音乐的伴随。“瓯骆”地区与吴越、闽越等北部越族地区虽同属百越族,具有一定的文化相似性,同时也具有不同面貌的文化特征。音乐亦应如此,南越先民的原始乐舞以无声的图像形式烙印在南海边、高山深壑间的高耸崖壁间,似向我们诉说着独特的文明轨迹。

一、宝镜湾岩画的祭祀乐舞图像

岭南音乐遗迹最早清晰显现来自南海岛屿崖壁古越族先民们祭祀圣坛的乐舞岩画。1989年10月在珠海市西南方高栏岛宝镜湾发现了史前摩崖壁画与遗址。考古学的研究论证了宝镜湾遗址跨越时代从新时期晚期至青铜时代早期,跟据14C测试,宝镜湾岩画的绝对年代为距今4000年前后,即中原地区的夏商时期,并与粤北石硖文化与环珠江口地区同时期文化遗迹相互对比,体现了古代越族先民在岭南的繁衍生息。[2]

宝镜湾摩崖岩画发现于高栏岛风猛鹰山顶、山腰和山麓,似乎整个风猛鹰山成为了先民绘图的背景,共计有5处7幅岩画,以尖状石器凿刻于相对平整的大面石崖上。在近于山峰处有新生的太阳,在海滩有圆月[3]和渔船与人形。其中乐舞的图案主要在被称之为“藏宝洞”的东壁岩画。[4]

图1-3:珠海宝镜湾岩画

巫觋的乐舞是祭祀的核心,先民们通过巫的乐舞与神沟通并预示神兆,昭示着“歌舞之兴,其始于巫乎?”的文明进程。男觋与女巫位于东壁岩画的中心,以中心干栏建筑为界,一左一右。男觋,位于东壁岩画干栏房右边,方脸平头,面上有面具,头戴似牛角状饰物,两臂弯曲上举,左手握拳,右手似拿一舞具(武器?),两腿分立,下体似着裳(羽、旄?),阴部明显,男根裸露。女巫,位于东壁岩画干栏房左边,头圆细小,右手弯曲下摆,左手向上弯曲似甩手过头,双腿分开为半蹲立状,跨裆刻有“”型标记,“似证明是一女性,而且是处女。”[5]人形微微倾斜,男子飘逸灵动的衣摆,女子扬手甩手,似乎舞姿正酣,进入祭祀娱神的炙热高潮。此外,“在宝镜湾岩画中,多处人物都是以舞蹈的形式出现,大都是举着手作舞蹈装,有的手部摆舞十分夸张,双足跨开作剪状。”[6]如,东壁岩画一组羽人,他们站立于舟船之上,形态各异,似随音乐“恒舞于宫”。[7]

  二、石峡陶片乐舞

  提及乐舞,不由让我们想起中国著名的青海大通县上孙寨村舞蹈图纹彩陶盆,那水波倒映翩翩起舞的身姿,给我们几多遐想,他们是在水边进行着祀神的活动?还是闲暇时的自得其乐的嬉戏?无论宗教或游戏,他们都是促成人类文明因子的元素。广东曲江马坝石峡遗址亦有类似的发现。

  石峡遗址,位于广东省曲江县马坝镇东南,是以新石器文化为主的遗址。考古发掘、研究表明,石峡遗址共存有四期文化遗存:一是距今6000年左右的新石器时代文化层;二是距今5000-4000年,被命名为“石峡文化”的新时期时代文化层;三是距今3800-3100年的早期青铜文化层;四是时代上与中原地区西周晚期到春秋时期相当的晚期青铜文化层。这四个文化层向我们展示了原始社会晚期到春秋晚期的三千多年间南越古苍梧族的历史画卷。

  现藏于曲江博物馆的石峡舞蹈纹陶片是1985年曲江马坝石峡遗址中第三文化层出土的,属于商代器物,距今约3500年。该组舞蹈纹压印在饰曲折纹的陶器肩部。陶器已破碎,形制不明。残陶片上可见舞人5名,从左至右数;第一人为正身正面,长颈,宽肩、细腰;第二人为正身侧面,嘴、下颌轮廓分明,系着长发,向后飘荡,神态生动传神,两人手拉手;第三人为侧身,头部不清,身体比例很适中,臀部丰满,下肢自然弯曲呈向右跨步舞姿,形象逼真;第四人与第一人舞姿完全相同;第五人仅见右肩部和飘起的散发。5位舞人手牵手,向左前方跃步起舞。[8]

图4-5:石峡舞蹈纹陶片、大通县彩陶盆

  对比与大通县彩陶盆乐舞,两组乐舞都为手牵手的集体舞,虽然石峡舞蹈晚于大通乐舞近2000余年,但是艺术发展来看,全裸的舞者和并不整齐划一的步伐和舞姿似乎石峡舞蹈更为原始的舞蹈面貌。

  三、左江流域岩画的祭祀乐舞

  图像可以凝结时空,使历程进程中的某一个点成为永恒,对于骆越族先民最生动的舞蹈形象莫过于广西左江流域崖壁画。

  1985年广西壮族自治区人民政府组织了“左江流域崖壁画考察团”,由广西民族研究所覃圣敏、覃彩銮、卢敏飞、喻如玉等组成的“先遣团”在连亘三百公里的左江悬崖峭壁上,共发现了岩壁画79个点、178处、280组,4500余画像。左山岩画均为赫红色颜料涂绘,以人像为主体间有器物和动物、自然物等形象。目前学术界主要观点认为这是壮族先民举行的盛大的祭祀舞蹈场面。其中最南为宁明珠山第一地点,最北为大新县画山,最东为扶绥县仙人山,最西为龙州县岩洞山。崖壁画以“花山崖壁画”最为丰富和清晰,因此左江崖壁画又被称为“花山崖壁画”。绘画时期为战国早期至东汉,其间跨越约600余年。绘画民族为瓯骆部族或者部落联盟中居住在左江流域的氏族及部落。绘画内容基本一致,舞人加器物和动物。舞人姿态分为正面、侧面,正面犹如蛙状,其双手两侧平伸,而后曲轴上举;两腿叉开做半蹲状,曲伸向上的小臂多向外敞。其舞蹈形象与壮族师公舞的“马步舞”十分相近。器物包括乐器:大量铜鼓和3枚羊角钮钟、无钮钟6枚。其中宁明县高山崖画中所见的二件悬挂于一个“”形架子的下栏,左右各一个;另一个见于花山崖画上,为单独处于一个呈悬挂状铜鼓滑向的右上方。其形态为上小下大,钟体似半橄榄形,顶端有供悬挂的倒八字形的羊角状双钮。无钮钟两枚出现于宁明县高山崖画中所见的二件悬挂于一个“”形架子的下栏,另花山一组处于两个平列的正身人像之间,4件分别挂在“士”形架子的上下左右。钟体略呈三角形,结构简单。[9]

  广西学者陈远璋曾对左江岩画舞蹈图像进行深入阐述,并将舞蹈表现内容分为:羽人舞、图腾舞、拟兽舞、假面舞、太阳舞、祀河舞、铜鼓舞、祈年舞、庆功舞[10],展现了生动丰富的古骆越族宗教祭祀乐舞形象和文化内涵。

图6-7:花山岩壁画

  四、铜鼓与羽人舞

  《周礼?春官?乐师》载:“凡舞,有帗舞,有羽舞,有皇舞,有旄舞,有千舞,人舞。”《周礼?地官?舞师》载:“舞师掌教兵舞,帅而舞山川之祭祀,教帗舞,帅而舞社稷之祭祀,教羽舞,帅而舞四方之祭祀,教皇舞,帅而舞旱嗼之事。”典籍记载了周代宫廷丰富的祭祀乐舞。岭南地区古代的祭祀乐舞除反映在岩壁和陶器上,也反映在作为礼器的青铜器,而作为“四方之祭祀”的羽舞,则是中国南方越族的普遍文化现象。

  铜鼓是中国南方少数民族的代表礼乐器。流传于云南、贵州和广西地区的石寨山型铜鼓上常饰有羽人舞蹈图像,被学术界称之为“羽人舞”。 如罗泊湾Ml:10号铜鼓、西林280号鼓、西林281号鼓等。罗泊湾M1:10号鼓:面径56.4、身高36.8厘米。太阳纹十二芒,芒间斜线角形纹。鼓面饰有十只环飞的鹭鸟,胸部饰羽人划船纹,鼓腰饰羽人舞蹈纹,还有同心圆圈纹、栉纹纹带。西林280号鼓:面径在77.5厘米,身高52.0厘米。太阳纹十六芒,芒间斜线角形纹。主纹为二十只环飞的翔鹭,另有勾连云纹。胸部饰羽人划船纹,共六组。腰部有舞人纹和鹿纹,共十二组。西林281号鼓:面径在72.0厘米,身高50.0厘米。太阳纹十四芒,芒间斜线角形纹。鼓面饰翔鹭纹,鼓胸饰羽人划船纹,鼓腰饰羽人舞蹈纹,足边钻六孔,嵌贴柿蒂形花钉。[11]

图8-9:罗泊湾M1:10号鼓

  铜鼓上的羽人舞的图像,是汉代壮侗先民模仿鹭鸟、鹿行进时的具体表现,是祭祀乐舞。铜鼓是乐器,更是祭祀的礼器,作为铜鼓纹饰的羽人舞,生动地展现了古代南方巫术文化的艺术形式和特征,与岩壁画上的羽人舞,纪实地反映出岭南少数民族先民的宗教信仰。


  结语

  岭南是中国文化发祥地之一。在五万多年前岭南先民开始在这片土地上开创文明的种子[12],上古至先秦两汉时期岭南被称之为“西瓯”、“骆越”、“苍梧”之地,并逐渐进入青铜和铁器时代。宝镜湾摩崖岩画到左江流域崖壁画凝固着岭南原住民文明的起源。在原始图腾、祭祀的乐舞图像中,反映着岭南少数民族先民的宗教观念,对于日月山川的自然崇拜、生殖崇拜、图腾崇拜等。其中,“羽人”作为远古至中古之早期中国时期骆越地区的代表文化符号,从岩壁画图像进入到具有礼乐属性的青铜礼乐器的纹饰图像中,体现了一脉相承的文化基因;在左江流域崖壁画除了骆越民族的祭祀乐舞,也体现了乐器的组合,如羊角钮钟和铜鼓的组合模式。从已知岭南地区出土乐器来看,在西周时期,越族礼乐器大铙逐渐传入南越地区,而同时代表着中原礼乐文明的青铜乐钟甬钟也在同时期传入岭南,并促进了本土礼乐器的铸造——越式甬钟的产生。与岭西地区交界的古代西南夷地区,此时也同步正在吸收中原礼乐文明创作了一种独特的乐钟——羊角钮钟,羊角钮钟是骆越民族的代表礼乐器。在考古发现,羊角钮钟和铜鼓一样,其使用者具有高贵身份而不是一般老百姓的居家之品,这点从滇王墓及罗泊湾一号汉墓中都可得到证明。羊角钮钟和中原青铜编钟在其历史发展上充当了一样的礼乐功能,这种功能是受早期中原文化的影响,只不过有个时间差而已,羊角钮钟在前期,音乐性能就在本地本类而言是最好的,而后音乐性能越来越差,其礼器的功能越来越强,随着钟类乐器的逐渐失宠,羊角钮钟的礼器神器功能在地位上渐渐低于铜鼓,而最终被铜鼓取代。原本与羊角钮钟共生的铜鼓在中原青铜文化的影响及本地多民族本地传统文化的影响下,逐步占领主导地位,集乐器、礼器、神器与一身,到汉代,以娱人为目的的世俗文化代替了礼乐文化,羊角钮钟渐渐退出历史舞台。

  在历史中,铜鼓最初是从铜釜演化而来,在先秦两汉时期,铜鼓的乐器性能逐渐体现出来,从铜鼓的纹饰反映的不仅是古人的信仰,而且从罗泊湾汉墓中出土的铜鼓中,铜鼓的纹饰反映了这时期铜鼓舞的存在;在花山岩画中也能寻找到铜鼓舞最初的形式。以铜鼓为核心的乐器组合被先秦两汉时期的文献中。总之,不管是乐舞,亦或乐器被使用,这都是受中原礼乐制度的影响,是一种礼乐器功能的表现。唐宋时期,铜鼓被作为乐器记载于乐部,宋代开始载入正史之中。明清时期,铜鼓经过前代的使用、流传、演奏,由此演变成一系列与祭祀、节庆、丧葬等活动相结合的铜鼓乐。


[1] 目前已知仅有梅县鱼埙、大寺镇石磬,由于非科学考古发现,因此对其族属尚需谨慎下定论。
[2] 广东省文物考古研究所、珠海市博物馆编著.珠海宝镜湾——海岛型史前文化遗址发掘报告[M].北京科学出版社,2004.
[3] 一说为落日。
[4] 李世源.珠海宝镜湾岩画判读[M].珠海出版社,2006:30-38.
[5] 李世源.珠海宝镜湾岩画判读[M].珠海出版社,2006:81.
[6] 广东省文物考古研究所、珠海市博物馆编著.珠海宝镜湾——海岛型史前文化遗址发掘报告[M].北京科学出版社,2004:169.
[7]《尚书》:“敢有恒舞于宫、酣歌于室,时谓巫风。”
[8] 孔义龙、刘成基.中国音乐文物大系Ⅱ?广东卷[M].郑州大象出版社,2010:264.
[9] 覃圣敏、覃彩銮、卢敏飞、喻如玉.广西左江流域岩壁画考察与研究[M].广西民族出版社,1987.
[10] 陈远璋.左江岩画舞蹈图像——试析壮族先民舞蹈艺术片面观[M].金涛、岑云端选编.壮族舞蹈研究[M].广西人民出版社,1988:34-60.
[11] 广西壮族自治区博物馆.广西贵县罗泊湾汉墓[M].北京文物出版社,1988.;广西壮族自治区文物工作队.广西西林县普驮铜鼓墓葬[J].文物,1978,9.
[12] 柳江人:柳江人人骨化石是广西目前发现的最早人骨化石,如按照百色手斧发现则人类在广西活动的历史可推断至80万年。



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